Information Sheets

Project Overview (pdf) – One page summary of our project.

River Murray Streamflow Reconstruction (pdf) – A two-page summary of key findings from the paper published in Water Resources Research.

The First Fleet Weathermen (pdf) – A two–page information sheet covering SEARCH’s work with Australia’s oldest weather records.

Revealing South-eastern Australia’s rainfall history (pdf) – A two–page information sheet presenting a combined palaeoclimate, documentary and early instrumental rainfall chronology for NSW since first European settlement in 1788.

Journal Articles

1. Gergis, J. (2008). Documentary accounts of the impacts of past climate variability on the early colony of New South Wales, 1788–1791: a preliminary analysis. Bulletin of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, 21(5), 103-107.

2. Gergis, J. (2009). Leaping forward through the past: how historical documents can help scientists understand climate change. University of Melbourne Collections, 4 42-44.

3. Gergis, J., Karoly, D.J. and Allan, R.J. (2009). A climate reconstruction of Sydney Cove, New South Wales, using weather journal and documentary data, 1788–1791. Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal 58 83-98.

4. Gergis, J., Garden, D. and Fenby, C. (2010). The influence of climate on the first European settlement of Australia: a comparison of weather journals, documentary data and palaeoclimate records, 1788–1793. Environmental History, 15 (3): 485-507.

5. Gergis, J., Brohan, P. and Allan, R.J. (2010). The weather of the First Fleet voyage to Botany Bay, 1787–1788. Weather 65 (12): 315-319.

6. Gergis, J. (2010). Salvaging sunken treasure. SL Magazine, State Library of New South Wales, Winter 2010, 18-21

7. Gallant, A. J. E., and Gergis, J. (2011). An experimental streamflow reconstruction for the River Murray, Australia, 1783–1988, Water Resources Research 47, W00G04, doi:10.1029/2010WR009832.

8. Gergis, J., Gallant, A. J. E., Braganza, K., Karoly, D. J., Allen, K., Cullen, L., D’Arrigo, R., Goodwin, I., Grierson, P. and McGregor, S. (2012). On the long-term context of the 1997-2009 ‘Big Dry’ in south-eastern Australia: insights from a 206-year multi-proxy rainfall reconstruction. Climatic Change111 (3): 923–944.

9. Neukom, R. and Gergis, J. (2012). Southern Hemisphere high resolution palaeoclimate records of the past 2000 years. The Holocene5: 501–524.

10. Mills, K., Gell, P., Gergis, J., Baker, P., Finlayson, M., Hesse, P., Jones, R., Kershaw, P., Pearson, S., Treble, P., Barr, C., Brookhouse, M., Drysdale, R., McDonald, J., Haberle, S., Reid, M., Thoms, M., Tibby, J. (2013).Palaeoclimate studies and natural resource management in the Murray-Darling Basin II: unravelling past human impact and climate variabilityAustralian Journal of Earth Sciences DOI: 10.1080/08120099.2013.804879

11. Fenby, C. and Gergis, J. (2012). A rainfall history of south-eastern Australia Part 1: a consolidation of pre-instrumental evidence from documentary sources, 1788–1860International Journal of Climatology DOI: 10.1002/joc.3640.

12. Gergis, J., and Ashcroft, L. (2012). A rainfall history of south-eastern Australia Part 2: a comparison of documentary, early instrumental and palaeoclimate records, 1788–2008International Journal of Climatology DOI: 10.1002/joc.3639.

13. PAGES Regional 2K consortium including Aus2K coauthors Gergis, J., Lorrey A.M and Phipps, S.J. (2013). Continental-scale temperature variability during the past two millenniaNature Geoscience 6: 339–346.

14. Phipps, S., , McGregor, H., Gergis, J, Gallant, A. J. E., Neukom, R., Stevenson, S., van Ommen, T., Brown, J., Fischer, M. and Ackerley, D. (2013). Palaeoclimate data–model comparison: Concepts and application to the climate of Australasia over the past 1500 years. Journal of Climate DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00108.1.

15. Ashcroft, L., Karoly, D.J. and Gergis, J. (2013). South-eastern Australian climate 1860–2009: a multivariate approachInternational Journal of Climatology DOI: 10.1002/joc.3812.

16. Gallant, A. J. E., Phipps, S.J., Karoly, D.J., Mullan, B.,  Lorrey, A. (2013). Non-stationary Australasian teleconnections and implications for paleoclimate reconstructions. Journal of Climate, 26, 8827-8849, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00338.1.

17. Neukom, R., Gergis J., Karoly, D., Frank, D., Villalba, R., Zinke, J., Linsley, B., Raible, C., González-Rouco, F. and Steig, E. (2014). Southern Hemisphere temperature variability over the last millennium, Nature Climate Change DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2174.

18. Ashcroft, L., Gergis, J. and Karoly, D.J. (2014). A historical climate dataset for southeastern Australia, 1788–1859Geoscience Data Journal DOI: 10.1002/gdj3.19.

19. Gergis, J., Neukom, R., Gallant, A., Karoly, D.J. and PAGES Aus2K project members. Evidence of unusual late 20th century warming from an Australasian temperature reconstruction spanning the last millennium. Journal of Climate (in review).

20. Garden, D., Fenby, C., Ashcroft, L. and Gergis, J. A climate profile for colonial southeastern Australia, 1788–1902. Australian Historical Studies (in final preparation).

Books, book chapters and PhD theses

1. Garden, D. (2009). Droughts, Floods and Cyclones – El Niños that Shaped our Colonial Past, Australian Scholarly Publishing.

2. Garden, D. (2010). ‘The Federation Drought of 1895-1903, El Niño and Society in Australia’ in Massard-Guilbaud, G. & Mosley, S. (eds), Common Ground: Integrating the Social and Environmental in History, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne.

3. Fenby, J., Garden, D. and Gergis, J.  The usual weather in New South Wales is uncommonly bright and clear…equal to the finest summer day in England. Climate and Weather in New South Wales, 1788–1815 ” Proceedings of the Symposium for Climate, Empire and Science (in press).

4. Fenby, C. (2012). Experiencing, understanding and adapting to climate in South-Eastern Australia, 1788–1860. School of Earth Sciences and School of Historical and Philosophical Studies,University of Melbourne.

5. Ashcroft, L. (2014). Extending the instrumental climate record of southeastern Australia. School of Earth Sciences, University of Melbourne.


1. Gell, P., Gergis, J. Mills, K., Baker, P., De Deckker, P., Finlayson, M., Hesse, P., Jones, R., Kershaw, P., Pearson, S., Treble, P., Barr, C., Brookhouse, M., Drysdale, R., Haberle, S. Karoly, D.J., McDonald, J., Reid, M., Thoms, M., and Tibby, J. (2009). Palaeoclimate studies relevant to natural resource management in the Murray–Darling Basin, in Murray‐Darling Basin Authority Science Review (pdf, 1.7MB), Canberra, Australia.

2. Phipps, S., Gergis, J. and Petherick, L. (2009). PAGES 1st Young Scientists Meeting and 3rd Open Science Meeting, Quaternary Australasia 26, 8-9.

3. Gergis, J. and Gallant A. (2010). Communicating climate change: advice from Science meets Parliament 2010. Bulletin of the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society 22 (2):4–6

4. Turney, C., Gergis, J., Lorrey, A., Palmer, J., Phipps, S.J., van Ommen, T. (2010). The 1st Australasia 2k regional workshop: Towards data synthesis, Melbourne Australia, 31 May – 2 June 2010, PAGES news, 18 (2): 91 – 92.

5. Gergis, J., Grierson, P.,  Lorrey, A.,  Palmer, J. and  Phipps, S.J. (2011). 2nd Australasia 2k Network workshop: Data synthesis and research planning. Meeting of the PAGES Aus2k Working Group – Perth, Australia, 27–29 April 2011. PAGES News, 19 (2): 74-75.

6. Gergis, J., Grierson, P., Lorrey, A., Palmer, J. and Phipps, S.J. (2011). 2nd Aus2K regional network workshop: data synthesis and research planning. Quaternary Australasia 28(1): 21-22.

7. Gallant, A., Gergis, J. and Karoly, D.J. (2012). Estimating hydroclimatic variations in Melbourne’s water supply catchments using palaeoclimate proxy data, 1788–1987. Unpublished report prepared for Melbourne Water.

8. Von Gunten, L.,  D.M. Anderson, B. Chase1, M. Curran, J. Gergis, E.P. Gille, W. Gross, S. Hanhijärvi, D.S. Kaufman, T. Kiefer, N.P. McKay, I. Mundo1, R. Neukom, M. Sano1, A. Shah, J. Tyler, A. Viau, S. Wagner, E.R. Wahl and D. Willard (2013). The backbone of PAGES 2k: data management and archivingPAGES News 21(3): 87.

Reports for project members

Meeting reports and newsletters (password protected)